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Wisdom versus knowledge
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       =======  Understanding Hinduism  =======

Wisdom Versus Knowledge

Click on underlined words to open paragraph

Education as training of the mind and not stuffing of the brain

From Chhandogya Upanishad

The Mundaka Upanishad

[The sage must distinguish between knowledge and Wisdom. Knowledge is of things, acts and relations. But Wisdom is of Brahman (Supreme Reality) alone; and beyond all things, acts, and relations, He abides forever. To become one with Him is the only Wisdom. - Swami Prabhavananda].

From The Mundaka Upanishad
Translations and explanations by Swami Nikhilananda
Sri Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, New York

Saunaka, the great householder, approached Angirasa in the proper manner and said: Revered Sir, What is that by the knowing of which all this becomes known? (I.i.3)

Angirasa answered to Saunaka:

To him he said: Two kinds of knowledge must be known – that is what the knowers of Brahman tell us. They are the Higher Knowledge and the lower knowledge.
-Mundaka Upanishad (I.i.4)

[Note: The Hindu philosophers observed that by knowing the nature of clay one knows the nature of everything made of clay, by knowing the nature of iron or gold one knows the nature of everything made of iron or gold. Is there not likewise, they asked, something that is the basic material of the universe, by the knowing of which everything in the universe will be known? Similarly, there should be one cause of the multiple objects of the world, by the knowing of which its effects could be known.

According to Non-dualistic Vedanta an effect has no real existence apart from its cause. Therefore when a man knows the cause, he also should know that the effect has no reality independent of it. Brahman is the ultimate cause of the universe. When one knows Brahman, one also knows that the universe has no reality independent of Brahman.

"Higher Knowledge": The Knowledge of the Supreme Self, which is beyond duality.

"lower knowledge": The lower knowledge is the knowledge of the phenomenal world. In reality it is ignorance, for it does not lead to the Highest Good. The seer of the Upanishad asks the aspirant to acquire both the knowledge of the relative world and the Knowledge of Ultimate Reality. When by the pursuit of the former he fails to attain true freedom and immortality, he cultivates the latter. The lower knowledge includes the knowledge of righteous actions (dharma) and unrighteous action (adharma) and their results.]

The two kinds of knowledge:

Of these two, the lower knowledge is the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda, siksha (phonetics), kalpa (rituals), vyakaranam (grammar), nirukta (etymology), chhandas (metre) and jyotis (astronomy); and the Higher Knowledge is that by which the Imperishable Brahman is attained.
  -Mundaka Upanishad (I.i.5)

[Note: Sri Shankaracharya explains that the Higher Knowledge refers to the actual realisation of the subject matter taught in the Sruti (Vedas). It primarily means the experience of the Imperishable Brahman taught in the Upanishads, and not the mere words contained in them.

"Siksha, kalpa…." : These six, known as the Vedangas, are ancillary to the Vedas. Without the knowledge of them a proper understanding of the Vedas is impossible.

"Is attained": In the case of the Higher Truth, attainment and knowledge are identical. This attainment is the same as the destruction of ignorance. The knower of Brahman becomes Brahman.]
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Education for human excellence

Education as training of the mind and not stuffing of the brain
-Swami Ranganathananda (Belur Math)

The first aim and function of all education should be to bring enlightenment to the students. Stuffing the student`s mind with facts and formulae is not education, because it does not bring enlightenment nor confer energy. Training of the mind, and not stuffing of the brain,
is what we need. Thus alone will the student be able to acquire a luminous mind and increased energy of personality. This is what our ancient Upanisads proclaim as the objective of education.This is conveyed to us in one of the famous verses known as Shanti Paath
or `Peace chant' occuring in the Katha and some other Upanisads.

Sir Julian Huxley, the British biologist, wrote to Swami Ranganathananda:

"Swami, you have given a splendid definition of what education ought to be, and sometimes is. But my visits to India showed me that the aim of a large number of Indian undergraduates was not to enjoy an education of this sort, but to pass examinations and obtain a degree, which is useful in getting jobs."

Educational significance of the Shanti Paath of the Upanishads

The 'Peace chant' reads:

Om, Sahanavavatu; sah nau bhunaktu;
saha viryam karavavahai;
Tejaswinavadhitamastu; ma vidvisavahai.
Om shantih, shantih, shantih.

`Om. May Brahman (the one divine Self in all) protect us both (student and teacher); may Brahman nourish us both; may we both acquire energy (by this education); may we not hate each other. Om. Peace, Peace, Peace.'

This peace invocation contains many beautiful sentiments which have inspired Indian education-secular and religious-for a few thousand years.

Teacher and student engaged in the pursuit of knowledge
and excellence of character is education

The invocation expresses the idea of education as the achievement of knowledge and excellence of character in the context of a harmonious relationship between teacher and student. The giving and receiving of knowledge, leading to the making of man, depends on the stimulus of such teacher-student relationship. The teacher gives and the student receives, not only ideas and information, but inspiration as well. In all the true education, teacher and student are not mere individuals, but personalities. Education, according to the Indian sages, is the lighting of one lamp from another lamp.

'May we acquire energy'
says the verse. Every step in education helps man to reach out to newer and newer energy resources within him. All energy is within man, says Vedanta. But they lie in deeper and deeper layers. 'Atmana vindate viryam'- `By the knowledge of the Atman, man gets infinite energy,' says the Kena Upanisad. Education helps man to secure access to the greater and greater energy resources within him. An uneducated rustic youth, timid and helpless, changes, through a few years in school, into a youth with a measure of fearlessness and self-confidence. His education continued further, helps that youth to develop a sense of his own individual identity.

It is this Rising to the status of the individuality from the state of the pre-individual mass man that gives man the capacity to take independent decisions, the courage to stand by them and take the consequences, and the ability to deal with the world, and his position in it, as a mature human being. This psychic maturity is one of the important criteria of education; and it comes only from an education that trains the mind and not merely stuff the brain

The mental immaturity of a large number of people world-wide is a big problem. It is here that the failure of many education systems is writ large. It does not impart that psychological maturity to many.Swami Vivekananda referred to all such as Moustached Babies!
They are physically very mature, but mentally they are like babies- dependent, weak, demanding, and bereft of the sense of personal dignity and responsibility. . They have not developed that human energy resource that can identify human problems and rise above them themselves and take their society also with them.

Behind these immature traits in all such people lies the lack of that luminosity or enlightenment which the Upanisads present as the second fruit of true education as mentioned in the peace chant.: Tejasvinau Adhitam Astu -
`may we be enlightened by this study, by this education'.

This is the significance of knowledge being compared to light. The logo or the emblem of our society depicts books plus Jnana-Dipa,
the light of knowledge. The Upanisads describe the Atman, the Self, as Jnana-svarup or Chit-svarup,
of the very nature of knowledge, of the very nature of consciousness. All awakening to knowledge, to consciousness, is, therefore, the manifestation of the Atman, in varying degrees.

This spiritual growth into personality is what twentieth-century biology calls the psycho-social evolution of man. It is man rising above organic evolution, to the spiritual and cultural levels.

This is what Swami Vivekananda calls Man-Making Education.
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From Chhandogya Upanishad
Translations and comments by Swami Nikhilananda
Sri Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, New York

Narada approached Sanatkumara (as a pupil) and said: Venerable Sir, please teach me.

Sanatkumara said to him: Please tell me what you already know. Then I shall tell you what is beyond.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I know the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, the epics (Puranas) and ancient lore (Itihasa or history) as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas (i.e. grammar), the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma0vidya (i.e. the science of pronunciation, ceremonials, prosody, etc.), the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts. All this I know, venerable Sir.

But, venerable Sir, with all these I know words only; I do not know the Self. I have heard from men like you that he who knows the Self overcomes sorrow. I am one afflicted with sorrow. Do you, venerable Sir, help me to cross over to the other side of sorrow.

Sanatkumara said: Whatever you have read is only a name. Verily, a name is the Rig-Veda; (so also) are the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth (Veda), the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas (i.e. grammar), the rules of the sacrifices by which the manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma-vidya, the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts.

Meditate on the name.

He who meditates on a name as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as the name reaches- he who meditates on a name as Brahman.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than a name?
Sanatkumara said: Of course there is something greater than a name.
Narada said: Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.

Speech as Brahman

Sanatkumar said: Speech is, verily, greater than a name. Speech makes one understand the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, the epics…the science of serpents, and the fine arts, as well as heaven, earth, air, space, water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, animals, together with worms, flies and ants as also righteousness and unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad, the pleasant and the unpleasant.

Verily, if there were no speech, neither righteousness nor unrighteousness would be known, neither the true nor the false, neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant.

Speech, verily, makes us know all these. Meditate upon speech. He who meditates on speech as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as speech reaches- he who meditates on speech as Brahman.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than speech?

Mind as Brahman

Sanatkumara said: Of course there is something greater than speech. Mind is verily greater than speech. Just as the closed fist holds two amalakas, or two plums, or two aksha fruits, so does the mind hold speech and a name. For when a man thinks in his mind that he would read the sacred hymns, then he reads them. When he thinks in his mind that he would perform actions, then he performs them. When he thinks in his mind that he would have sons and cattle, then he desires them. When he thinks in his mind that he would have this world and the other, then he desires them. Mind, indeed, is the Self; mind is the world; mind is Brahman.

Meditate on the mind. He who meditates on mind as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as mind reaches- he who meditates on Brahman.

Will as Brahman

Will (samkalpa) is verily, greater than mind. For when a man wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech, and then he employs speech in (the recital of) a name. The sacred hymns are included in a name, and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns.

Will, indeed, is the goal of all these (beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice); from will they arise and in will they all abide. Heaven and earth willed, air and space willed, water and fire willed. Through the will (of heaven and earth etc.) the rain wills; through the will of the rain, food wills; through the will of food, the pranas will; through the will of the pranas, the sacred hymns will; through the will of the sacred hymns, the sacrifices will; through the will of the sacrifices, the world wills; through the will of the world, everything wills. Such is will. Meditate on will.

He who meditates on will as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as will reaches- he who meditates on will as Brahman.

Consideration as Brahman

Consideration (chitta) is, verily, greater than will. For when a man considers, then he wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech, then he engages speech in (the recitation of) a name. The sacred hymns are included in a name, and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns.

Consideration is, indeed, the goal of all these (beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice); from consideration they arise and in consideration they all abide. Therefore if a person is without consideration, even though he possesses much knowledge, people say of him that he is nothing, and whatever he knows (is useless); for if he were really learned, he would not be so inconsiderate. But if a person is considerate, though he knows but little, to him people are eager to listen. Consideration, indeed, is the goal of all these; consideration is the Self; consideration is the support. Meditate on consideration.

He who meditates on consideration as Brahman, He, being permanent, firm, and undistressed, obtains the worlds which are permanent, firm and undistressed; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as consideration reaches- he who meditates on consideration as Brahman.

Meditation as Brahman

Meditation (Dhyana) is, verily, greater than consideration. Earth meditates, as it were. The mid-region meditates as it were. Heaven meditates, as it were. The waters meditate, as it were. The mountains meditate, as it were. The gods meditate, as it were. Men meditate, as it were. Therefore he who, among men, attains greatness here on earth seems to have obtained a share of meditation. Thus while small people are quarrelsome, abusive, and slandering, great men appear to have obtained a share of meditation. Meditate on meditation.

He who meditates on meditation as Brahman, can, of his own free will, reach as far as meditation reaches- he who meditates on meditation as Brahman.

Understanding as Brahman

Understanding is, verily, greater than meditation. Understanding makes one understand the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, the epics……and the fine arts; heaven, earth, air, space, water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees; animals, together with worms, flies and ants; and also righteousness and unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad, the pleasant and the unpleasant, food and taste, this world and yonder (world). Meditate on understanding.

He who meditates on understanding as Brahman attains the worlds of understanding and knowledge and can, of his own free will, reach as far as understanding reaches- he who meditates on understanding as Brahman.

Strength as Brahman

[Note: Strength: the power of the mind produced from food.]

Strength is, verily, greater than understanding. One strong man causes a hundred men of understanding to tremble. When a man is strong he can rise. If he rises he can attend (on the teachers). If he attends on them he can become their intimate companion (as a pupil). If he is their intimate companion he can watch (their conduct), listen to their instructions, reflect on what he hears, become convinced of what he reflects on, act, and enjoy the result of action. By strength the earth stands firm, by strength the mid-region, heaven, mountains, the gods and men, cattle and birds, herbs and trees and animals, together with worms, flies and ants, by strength the world stands firm. Meditate upon strength.

He who meditates on strength as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as strength reaches- he who meditates on strength as Brahman.

Food as Brahman

Food is, verily, greater than strength. Therefore, if a man abstains from food for ten days (or longer periods), even though he might live, yet he would not be able to see, hear, reflect, become convinced, act or enjoy the result. But when he obtains food, he is able to see, hear, reflect, become convinced, act, and enjoy the result.

He who meditates on food as Brahman obtains the world rich in food and drink; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as food reaches- he who meditates on food as Brahman.

Water as Brahman

Water is, verily, greater than food. Therefore if there is not sufficient rain, then living creatures are afflicted with the thought that there will be less food. But if there is sufficient rain, then living creatures rejoice in the thought that there will be much food. It is water that assumes the form of this earth, this mid-region, this heaven, these mountains, these gods and men, cattle and birds, herbs and trees, and animals, together with worms, flies and ants. Water indeed is all these forms. Meditate on water.

He who meditates on water as Brahman obtains all his desires and becomes satisfied; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as water reaches- he who meditates on water as Brahman.

Fire as Brahman

Fire is, verily, greater than water. For, having seized the air, it warms the space9Akasa). Then people say: ‘It is hot, it burns; it will rain,’ Thus does fire first manifest itself and then create water. Furthermore, thunderclaps roll with lightning upward and across the sky. Then people say: ‘there is lightning, there is thunder; it will rain.’ Here also does fire first manifest itself and then create water. Meditate on fire.

He who meditates on fire as Brahman becomes radiant himself and obtains radiant worlds, full of light and free from darkness; he can of his own free will, reach as far as fire reaches- he who meditates on fire as Brahman.

Akasa (space) as Brahman

The akasa (space) is, verily, greater than fire. For in the akasa exist both the sun and the moon, lightning, stars, and fire. It is through the akasa that a person calls another; it is through the akasa that that the others hears; it is through the akasa that the person hears back. In the akasa we rejoice (when we are together), and in the akasa we rejoice not (when we are separated). In the akasa everything is born, and toward the akasa all things grow. Meditate upon the akasa.

He who meditates on the akasa as Brahman obtains the worlds extending far and wide, luminous, free from pain, and spacious; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as the akasa reaches- he who meditates on the akasa as Brahman.

Memory as Brahman

Memory is,verily, greater than the akasa. Therefore, even when many people assemble, if they had no memory they would not hear anyone at all, they would not think, they would not understand. But surely, if they had memory, they would hear, think, and understand. Through memory, one knows one’s sons, through memory one’s cattle. Meditate on memory.

He who meditates on memory as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as memory reaches- he who meditates on memory as Brahman.

Hope as Brahman

Hope is, verily, greater than memory. Kindled by hope, (a person endowed with ) memory reads the sacred hymns, performs sacrifices, desires sons and cattle, desires this world and the other. Meditate on hope.

He who meditates on hope as Brahman- all his desires are fulfilled through hope, his prayers are not in vain; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as hope reaches- he who meditates on hope as Brahman.

Prana (vital force) as Brahman

The prana is, verily greater than hope. As the spokes of a wheel are fastened to the nave, so are all these (beginning with the name and ending with hope) fastened to the prana. The prana moves by the prana. The prana gives prana to the prana. The prana is the father, the prana is the mother, the prana is the brother, the prana is the sister, the prana is the teacher, the prana is the brahmin (priest).

[Note: The prana is the self of all, and includes action, the agent, and the result of action. It manifests itself in three principal forms: the body of Hiranyagarbha, the external air, and the principal vital breath in a living creature. The self (atman) dwells in the body with the support of the prana. When the prana departs from the body, the Self, too, gives it up. The Self, of which the prana forms an upadhi (limiting adjunct), and the consciousness which is behind the body of Hiranyagarbha are both non-different from the Supreme Self. All entities- beginning with names and ending in hope- are fastened to the prana. Of these, the name is the effect and speech the cause; speech is the effect and mind the cause. The cause is greater than the effect. All these entities, bound by the chain of hope, are fastened to the all-pervading prana, which is greater than hope.]

If one says something unbecoming to a father, mother, brother, sister, teacher, or brahmin (priest), then people say: ‘Shame on you! Verily, you are a slayer of your father, a slayer of your mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer of your teacher, a slayer of a brahmin.’

But if, when the prana has departed from them, one shoves them together with a poker and burns every bit of them, no one would say: ‘You are slayer of your father, a slayer of your mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer of your teacher, a slayer of a brahmin’.

The prana, verily, is all these. He (i.e. the knower of the prana) who sees this, reflects on this, is convinced of this, becomes an ativadi (superior speaker). If people say to such a man: ‘You are an ativadi,’ he may say: ‘Yes, I am an ativadi’; he need not deny it.

[Note: The word ‘ativadi’ means, literally, superior speaker. It refers to a person who knows not only all the entities that should be known- that is to say, from names to hope- but also the prana, or conscious Self, which is beyond them.]

The knowledge of the Truth

But in reality he is an ativadi who has become an ativadi by the knowledge of the True.

Narada said: May I, venerable Sir, become an ativadi by the knowledge of the True?
Sanatkumara said: But one should desire to know the True.
Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to know theTrue.

[Note: ‘True’ means that which transcends all phenomena and is infinite.]

Truth depends upon Understanding

Sanatkumara said: When one understands the True, only then does one declare the True. One who does not understand the true does not declare It. Only one who understands It declares the True. One must desire to understand this understanding.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand.

Understanding depends upon reflection

Sanatkumara said: When one reflects, only then does one understand. One who does not reflect does not understand. Only one who reflects understands. One must desire to understand this reflection.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand reflection.

[Note: Reflection includes reasoning about the object on which one reflects.]

Reflection depends upon Faith

Sanatkumara said: When one has faith, only then does one reflect. One who does not have faith does not reflect. Only one who has faith reflects. One must desire to understand faith.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand faith.

Faith depends upon single-mindedness

Sanatkumara said: When one is single-minded (in one’s devotion to the teacher), only then does one have faith. One who does not have single-mindedness does not have faith. Only one who has single-mindedness has faith. One must desire to understand single-mindedness.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand single-mindedness.

Single-mindedness depends upon concentration

Sanatkumara said: when one performs one’s duties (i.e. practises concentration), only then does one have single-mindedness. One who does not perform his duties does not have single-mindedness. Only one who performs his duties has single-mindedness. One must desire to understand the performance of duties.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the performance of duties.

Concentration depends upon bliss

Sanatkumara said: When one obtains bliss, only then does one perform one’s duties. One who does not obtain bliss does not perform his duties. Only one who obtains bliss performs his duties. One must desire to understand bliss.

Narada said; Venerable Sir, I desire to understand bliss.

The Infinite is bliss

Sanatkumara said: The Infinite is bliss. There is no bliss in anything finite. Only the Infinite is bliss. One must desire to understand the Infinite.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the Infinite.

The Infinite and the finite

Sanatkumara said: Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands nothing else- that is the Infinite. Where one sees something else, hears something else, understands something else- that is the Infinite. The Infinite is immortal, the finite (is) mortal.

Narada said: Venerable Sir, in what does the Infinite find Its support?

Sanatkumara said: In Its own greatness- or not even in greatness.

[Note: ‘Where one sees…’ There exists no seer or organ of seeing other than the non-dual Infinite, or Brahman. All empirical differentiations are absent in the experience of the Infinite. ‘Immortal’ means changeless. ‘In Its own …’ If one wishes to know the support of the Infinite, then it may be said to rest in its own greatness. But the fact is that the Infinite is without support; It is non-dual.]

[It is said that the Infinite rests on Its own greatness. How then can It be without a support?]

Sanatkumara said: Here on earth people describe cows and horses, elephants and gold, slaves and wives, fields and houses, as ‘greatness’. I do not mean this, for in such cases one thing finds its support in another. But what I say is:

Instruction about the Infinite

That Infinite, indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It is before. It is to the south. It is to the north The Infinite, indeed, is all this.

Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to ‘I’:

I, indeed, am below. I am above. I am behind. I am before. I am to the south. I am to the north. I am. indeed, all this.

[Note: ‘That Infinite…’ Now is explained why the Infinite does not rest upon anything. It is because there is nothing apart from the Infinite on which It could rest. The Infinite Itself is everything. Therefore It does not rest upon anything. ‘

‘Next follows..’ The purpose of the text is to show the oneness of the Infinite and the Jiva (individual soul).

[To the ignorant the word ‘I’ signifies the body. But here it signifies the Atman, or Self.]

Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to the Self: The Self, indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It is before. It is to the south. It is to the north. The Self, indeed, is all this.

Verily, he who sees this, reflects on this, and understands this delights in the Self, sports with the self, rejoices in the self, revels in the Self. (Even while living in the body) he becomes a self-ruler. He wields unlimited freedom in all the worlds.

But those who think differently from this have others for their rulers; they live in perishable worlds. They have no freedom in all the worlds.

[Note: ‘He who sees this:’ That is to say, who knows the Self to be unborn, all-pervading, and free. ‘Delights in the Self’: All his love is centred in the Self alone. ‘Rejoices in the Self’: The pleasure which ordinary people derive from the company of others is enjoyed by the wise from the Knowledge of the Self. ‘Revels in the Self’: He does not derive any joy from the objects of the senses. ‘He… self-ruler’: His freedom is unlimited. ‘Perishable worlds’: Worlds of diversity.]

Self-knowledge

For Him who sees this, reflects on this, and understands this, the prana springs from the Self, hope springs from the Self, memory springs from the self, the akasa (space) springs from the Self, fire springs from the Self, water springs from the Self, appearance and disappearance spring from the Self, food springs from the Self, strength springs from the Self, understanding springs from the Self, meditation springs from the Self, consideration springs from the Self, will springs from the Self, mind springs from the Self, speech springs from the Self, the name springs from the Self, the sacred hymns spring from the Self, the sacrifices spring from the Self- ay, all this springs from the Self.

[Note; ‘All this’: All things perceived to exist.]

[Prior to obtaining the Knowledge of the true Self, one believes that all entities, from the name to the prana, spring from and disappear into something other than the Self. But when one has realised the Self, one knows that all things appear from and disappear into the Self alone.]

On this there is the following verse:

"The knower of Truth does not see death or disease or sorrow. The knower of Truth sees everything and obtains everything everywhere.

He (the knower) is one (before the creation), becomes three, becomes five, becomes seven, becomes nine; then again he is called eleven, one hundred and ten, and one thousand and twenty.

[Now is described the discipline for inner purification by which Self-Knowledge is attained]:

When food is pure, the mind becomes pure. When the mind is pure the memory becomes firm. When the memory is firm all ties are loosened.

The venerable Sanatkumara showed Narada, after his blemishes had been wiped out, the other side of darkness. They call Sanatkumara Skanda, yea, Skanda they call him.

[Note: ‘The knower of Truth’: That is to say, he who sees all things in the Self. ’Becomes three’: That is to say, fire, water and earth. ‘Becomes seven etc’: The various numbers are intended to show the endless variety of forms the Self assumes after the creation. Again, at the time of dissolution, the self returns to Its pristine unity. ‘Food’: The Sanskrit word dhara in the text means anything that is taken in (ahriyate) by the senses, that is to say, sounds, sights, smells, etc. ‘Mind…pure’: Free from aversion, attachment, or delusion. ‘Memory’: That is to say, the memory that He is the Infinite Self. ‘All ties etc’: Ties created by ignorance, which have accumulated through numerous births and which reside in the heart. ‘Darkness’; Ignorance. ‘Venerable Sanatkumara’: He who knows the origin, the end, the birth and death (of all beings), and also ignorance and Knowledge- such a one is called venerable (bhagavan). (As explained by Sri Sankaracharya). ‘Skanda’: The dictionary meaning of this word is "wise man"]
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