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       =======  Understanding Hinduism  =======

What religion is
By Swami Ramakrishnananda, Belur Math

(Excerpts taken from the book ‘God Lived With Them’
By Swami Chetanananda, Belur Math).

Science is the struggle of man in the outer world. Religion is the struggle of man in the inner world. Science makes man struggle for Truth in the outside universe, and religion makes him struggle for Truth in the inner universe. Both struggles are great, no doubt, but one ends in success and the other ends in failure. That is the difference. Religion begins where science ends. The whole scientific method is based on observation and experiment; but the moment man realises that there is something beyond observation and experiment he will give them up and leave material science behind. Science will always have to deal with finite bodies, and God is infinite.

According to Vedanta philosophy the microcosm and Macrocosm are not different; they originate from the same substance. Actually time, space, and causation are not separate entities outside; they all exist in me, that is, in my mind. The whole universe is inside man.
________________________

By Swami Vivekananda (Translated from Bengali).
The foremost disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa

Truth is of two kinds:
(1) That which is cognisable by the five ordinary senses of man, and by reasonings based thereon
(2) That which is cognisable by the subtle, super-sensuous power of Yoga.

Knowledge acquired by the first means is called science;
and knowledge acquired by the second is called the Vedas.

The whole body of super sensuous truths, having no beginning or end, and called by the name of Vedas, is ever existent. The Creator Himself is creating, preserving and destroying the universe with the help of these truths.

The person in whom this super-sensuous power is manifested is called a Rishi, and the super-sensuous truths, which he realises by this power, are called the Vedas.

This Rishihood, this power of super-sensuous perception of the Vedas, is real religion.

And so long as this does not develop in the life of an initiate, so long is religion a mere empty word to him, and it is to be understood that he has not taken yet the first step in religion.

The authority of the Vedas extends to all ages, climes and persons; that is to say, their application is not confined to any particular place, time and persons.

The Vedas are the only exponent of the universal religion.

Although the super sensuous vision of truths is to be met with in some measure in our Puranas and Itihasas (history) and in the religious scriptures of other races, still the fourfold scripture known among the Aryan race as the Vedas being the first, the most complete, and the most undistorted collection of spiritual truths, deserve to occupy the highest place among all scriptures, command the respect of all nations of the earth, and furnish the rationale of all their respective scriptures.

With regard to the whole Vedic collection of truths discovered by the Aryan race, this also has to be understood that those portions alone which do not refer to purely secular matters and which do not merely record tradition or history, or merely provide incentives to duty, form the Vedas in the real sense.

==============
Related articles

Hinduism & Sri Ramakrishna
Atheist
Jesus versus Churchianity
Islam-Stagnant

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Vedic Mathematics
What is Vedic Mathematics?

Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae. For example, 'Vertically and Crosswise` is one of these Sutras. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution.
Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence. Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: the general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow one-line divisions and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square roots. And these are all easily understood. This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and enjoyable and encourages innovation.
In the Vedic system 'difficult' problems or huge sums can often be solved immediately by the Vedic method. These striking and beautiful methods are just a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more systematic than the modern 'system'. Vedic Mathematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary, direct and easy.
The simplicity of Vedic Mathematics means that calculations can be carried out mentally (though the methods can also be written down). There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Pupils can invent their own methods, they are not limited to the one 'correct' method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils.
Interest in the Vedic system is growing in education where mathematics teachers are looking for something better and finding the Vedic system is the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning Vedic Maths on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic Sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc.
But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible.
The Vedic Mathematics Sutras
This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere.
This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.
The Main Sutras

By one more than the one before.

All from 9 and the last from 10.

Vertically and Cross-wise

Transpose and Apply

If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero

If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero

By Addition and by Subtraction

By the Completion or Non-Completion

Differential Calculus

By the Deficiency

Specific and General

The Remainders by the Last Digit

The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate

By One Less than the One Before

The Product of the Sum

All the Multipliers

The Sub Sutras

Proportionately

The Remainder Remains Constant

The First by the First and the Last by the Last

For 7 the Multiplicand is 143

By Osculation

Lessen by the Deficiency

Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and
set up the Square of the Deficiency

Last Totalling 10

Only the Last Terms

The Sum of the Products

By Alternative Elimination and Retention

By Mere Observation

The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products

On the Flag

 

Try a Sutra
Mark Gaskell introduces an alternative
system of calculation based on Vedic philosophy
At the Maharishi School in Lancashire we have developed a course on Vedic mathematics for key stage 3 that covers the national curriculum. The results have been impressive: maths lessons are much livelier and more fun, the children enjoy their work more and expectations of what is possible are very much higher. Academic performance has also greatly improved: the first class to complete the course managed to pass their GCSE a year early and all obtained an A grade.
Vedic maths comes from the Vedic tradition of India. The Vedas are the most ancient record of human experience and knowledge, passed down orally for generations and written down about 5,000 years ago. Medicine, architecture, astronomy and many other branches of knowledge, including maths, are dealt with in the texts. Perhaps it is not surprising that the country credited with introducing our current number system and the invention of perhaps the most important mathematical symbol, 0, may have more to offer in the field of maths.
The remarkable system of Vedic maths was rediscovered from ancient Sanskrit texts early last century. The system is based on 16 sutras or aphorisms, such as: "by one more than the one before" and "all from nine and the last from 10". These describe natural processes in the mind and ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. For example, if we wished to subtract 564 from 1,000 we simply apply the sutra "all from nine and the last from 10". Each figure in 564 is subtracted from nine and the last figure is subtracted from 10, yielding 436.

 

This can easily be extended to solve problems such as 3,000 minus 467. We simply reduce the first figure in 3,000 by one and then apply the sutra, to get the answer 2,533. We have had a lot of fun with this type of sum, particularly when dealing with money examples, such as £10 take away £2. 36. Many of the children have described how they have challenged their parents to races at home using many of the Vedic techniques - and won. This particular method can also be expanded into a general method, dealing with any subtraction sum.
The sutra "vertically and crosswise" has many uses. One very useful application is helping children who are having trouble with their tables above 5x5. For example 7x8. 7 is 3 below the base of 10, and 8 is 2 below the base of 10.

 

 

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