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       =======  Understanding Hinduism  =======


Valmiki Ramayana-  Adhyatma Ramayana
Tulasi Ramayana-  Yogavasistha

Click on underscored words to open paragraph

The Festival of Rama Navami

Ramanavami Message from Swami Shivananda
The Divine Life Society, Rishikesh

Valmiki Ramayana

Ramayana (from Valmiki Ramayana)
The celestial Sage Narada narrates to
Valmiki the qualities of Sri Ram

The philosophy of the Ramayana

The esoteric meaning of Ramayana

Three distinctly contrasted societies

The Supreme Virtue of the Ramayana
Valmiki Ramayana

The Art of Administration as
depicted in Valmiki Ramayana

The Ramayana’s relevance to modern times
(Valmiki Ramayana)

Sri Rama, an Embodiment of Dharma (part 1)

Sri Rama, an Embodiment of Dharma (part 2)

A private side of Sri Rama As
revealed by Mother Kaushalya

From The Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Chapter 25

Ravana -The Terrible Rascal (From Valmiki Ramayana)
The Rape of Rambha, The curse of Nalakuvara

Ravana Begs Sita To Wed Him
(From Valmiki Ramayana)

The Birth of Ravana and his Brothers
(From Valmiki Ramayana)

The Boons desired by Ravana
(From Valmiki Ramayana)

Ravana’s Birth and Lineage (From Valmiki Ramayana)

Vali and Sri Ram An esoteric interpretation

Adhyatma Ramayana

Adhyatma Ramayana

Sage Chandramas Expounds the
Philosophy of the Atman (Self) to Sampati

Adhyatma Ramayana

Tulasi Ramayana

Tulasi Ramayana

Knowledge and Devotion (The two paths)
Tulasi Ramayana

The Importance of Satsang
(Company of holy people)

Tulasi Ramayana

Surrender to the Lord
Tulasi Ramayana

The Victory Chariot of Sri Rama Tulasi Ramayana
Question: How can one, standing alone on the ground, bare feet,
and without armour to protect the body, defeat the opposition
who is mounted in a battle tank?

Sri Rama abides in the heart of those ...
From Tulasi Ramayana

Swami Vivekananda wrote:
Survival of the Fittest
Religion Is The Backbone Of This Race
India’s gift to the world is the light spiritual

Seven Questions
Seven questions of Garuda and Kakabusundi’s replies to them

Some Legends connected with Goswami Tulasidas

Rama Darshan at Chitrakut
(The Vision of Sri Rama at Chitrakut)

Sri Hanuman and Sant Tulasidas

Yoga Vasishtha

Yoga Vasistha


From The Valmiki Ramayana, Bala-Kanda.Canto I.
Opening verses:
The celestial Sage Narada narrates to Valmiki
the qualities of Sri Ram

The Sage Valmiki once put the following question to Sage Narada
, the chief of the hermits and the foremost in the art of expression:

"Is there any one in this world at present who is full of virtues and at the same time possessed of great prowess, who knows what is right, is well versed in Dharma (religion), who is conscious of service done (grateful), truthful, and of firm resolve?

Who is possessed of right conduct and who is friendly to all living beings. Who is a man of knowledge, who is powerful and who has a singularly lovable appearance. Who has subdued his self, who has conquered anger, who is possessed of splendour and who is above faultfinding and whom the very gods dread when his wrath has been provoked in battle?

I wish to hear this; for there is a great curiosity in my mind about it while you are capable of knowing such a man, O eminent Seer!"

Being pleased on hearing these words of Valmiki, the Sage Narada who possessed knowledge of the three worlds, and greatly delighted, addressed the following words:

"Listen! I shall duly consider and tell you of such a hero. Be please to hear from me of the man endowed with the many and rare virtues and qualities mentioned by you.

There is one born in the line of Ikshvaku and known by men by the name of Rama. He has fully controlled his mind, is very powerful, radiant and resolute and has brought his senses under control. He is intelligent, sagacious, eloquent, glorious and an exterminator of foes. He is distinguished with broad shoulders, powerful arms, a neck shaped as a conch and a stout chin.

He is marked with a broad chest, a mighty bow and a collar bone covered with flesh, Ram is capable of subduing his foes. His (unusually long) arms extend right up to his knees. He has a well formed head, a shapely forehead and a charming gait. He is of medium stature, has well proportioned limbs and of charming complexion. He is mighty. He has a well shaped chest, large eyes, is full of splendour and has auspicious marks on his body.

He knows the secret of virtues and is true to his promise. He is intent on the good of the people. He is illustrious, full of wisdom, pure in his dealings, a man of self-control and a sharp (concentrated) mind. He is like the Creator Brahma in supporting all, affluent, the slayer of his enemies, protector of all living beings and a staunch defender of faith (Dharma).

He is well principled and protects his people. He knows the truth expounded in the Vedas and Vedangas (six sciences) auxiliary to them and is a master in archery. He knows the real meaning of all the scriptures , possessed of a bright intellect and good memory. He is gentle, noble, shrewd and is loved by all.

He is always sought by the righteous (even) as the rivers seek the ocean. He is courteous to one and all and always well composed, noble and always wears a pleasing countenance. He is endowed with excellence and gladdens the heart of his mother Kausalya. He is dignified and profound like the ocean and firm (steadfast) like the Himalayas.

He is a replica of Lord Vishnu in prowess and soothing like the moon. In (show of) anger he resembles the conflagration (destructive fire) at dissolution (end of creation). He is a counterpart of Mother Earth in forbearance. He equals Kubera (the god of riches, the bestower of wealth) in liberality and steadfast in truth like Lord Dharma."

The philosophy of the Ramayana
By Swami Vivekananda
The foremost disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa

Sri Rama was the Parmatman (Supreme Reality) and that Sita was the Jivatman (embodied individual soul). Each man’s or woman’s body was the Lanka. The Jivatman which was enclosed in the body, or captured in the island of Lanka, always desired to be in affinity with the Parmatman, or Sri Rama. But the Rakshasas would not allow it, and the Rakshasas represented certain traits of character.

For instance, Vibhishana represented Sattwa Guna, Ravana represented Rajas Guna and Kumbhakarana represented Tamas Guna. Sattwa Guna means goodness, Rajas means lust and passion and Tamas means darkness, stupor, avarice, malice, and its concomitants.

These Gunas keep back Sita, or Jivatman, which is in the body (Lanka) from joining Paramatman (Rama). Sita, thus imprisoned and trying to unite with her Lord, receives a visit from Hanuman, the Guru or divine teacher, who shows her the Lord’s ring, which is Brahma-Jnana, the supreme wisdom that destroys all illusions.

Thus Sita finds the way to be at one with Sri Rama or in other words, the Jivatman finds itself one with the Paramatman.

The esoteric meaning of Ramayana
By Sant Keshavadas

(Ramayana is not a mere story. It is the
story we live every moment of our lives.)

Dasaratha symbolises the intellect that controls the senses. The three queens of Dasaratha are the three Gunas known as Sattwa (tranquillity), Rajas (activity), and Tamas (malice, ignorance, darkness). Vasishtha and Viswamitra are the gurus who guide the intellect. Rama is the transcendental Self and Lakshmana, Bharata and Satrughna (Rama’s three brothers) are the triple manifestations of God as immanent, God as in-dwelling spirit, and God as soul, respectively.

Manthara (the maid servant) symbolises the negative qualities that poisons Kaikeyi (the Rajasic-Tamasic mind). Demons and demonesses in Ramayana are the evil propensities in us. Ravana is the Rajasic ego. Kumbhakarana is the Tamasic ego. Vibhishana represents the Sattwic ego. Rama’s wife Sita is the Cosmic Energy (Kundalini) abducted by Ravana, the ego, for wrong use. So, through (with the help of) Hanuman, symbolising Pranayama, or rhythmic breathing, you will find the location of Sita, the energy and convey the news of Rama, the Self. Rama’s destruction of Ravana and Kumbhkarana symbolises the destruction of Rajasic and Tamasic egos. The installation of Vibhishana symbolises the establishment of Sattwa Guna and equanimity through Self-realisation. Union of Rama and Sita is the union of Shakti with the eternal consciousness of the true self. Rama’s coronation symbolises the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. This, in short, is the esoteric meaning of Ramayana.

Three distinctly contrasted societies
By Sri N. Nanjunda Sastry

The overall picture that we get on the large canvas of Valmiki is of three distinctly contrasted societies; Sattvic in Ayodhya, Sattvic and Rajasic in Kishkindha, and Tamasic and Rajasic in Lanka. If Dharma is the cardinal principle of the Aryan society (of Ayodhya), Adharma is the ruling principle of the Rakshasa (demon) society. We have a Manava in the north, a Vanara in the peninsula and a Rakshasa in the island. In all three kingdoms, be it noted, the elder is ousted and the younger secures the power, though Bharat’s instance is of a different nature altogether. Eventually in one of the three kingdoms the throne is restored to the eldest.

Valmiki has drawn three scintillating pictures representing three levels of civilization, three societies, as it were, with their own values, mores and structures.

The first picture

In the North is the Aryan society based on Sattwic qualities with a fairly advanced political organisation. Dasaratha, the noble king, ruled over a vast territory and had a number of loyal vassals. He had administrative counsellors (Sumanthra, for example), as also spiritual mentors (Vasishtha, for example). He was held in high esteem by the members of all the Varnas of his kingdom, by the Rishis and Ashramites living in the dense forest pursuing their esoteric studies.

In such an advanced society the family was the central unit where the father was treated with love and reverence. The eldest son of the family enjoyed the respect and affection of his brothers and relatives. There was no physical clash among the brothers, and one did not lust for the other’s wife. They were all learned in the ancient lore of the land and performed the traditional rites, rituals and duties with devotion and zeal. All in all, the Aryan society represented by Ayodhya and Rama was a highly advanced and worthy society cherishing Sattwic values, Sattwic way of life and Sattwic pursuits.

The second picture
Drawn by Sage Valmiki is of the Vanara society of Kishkindha. Here the administration was no doubt competent but tending to be autocratic. The family was of a loose structure and one brother sought the help of an "outsider" to have another killed The wives moved from one brother to another and remained pleased and satisfied with what they secured at a given moment. There was a large physical force at the command of the king and he agreed to put it at the disposal of the "outsider" provided he helped him to secure his kingdom. This Vanara society was composed of Rajasic and Sattwic Gunas, with Rajasic Guna being preponderant. Hanuman stands out as a lone exception by his being a Brahmachari (celibate) and a real Bhakta (devotee) and a very wise and dependable emissary.

In the third picture,
To emphasize the contrast presented by the Aryan society of the North and the Vanara society of the South, the literary artist par excellence that he is, Adikavi Valmiki draws the captivating picture of a Rakshasa society out there in the island kingdom of Lanka. Ravana the ten-headed (king of Lanka), is very learned but very unwise. He is out and out a dictator whose physical prowess and strategic maneuvering are matchless. Ravana is intolerant of opposition and easily excitable. Ravana maintained a large harem. His handsomeness, his charm, his learning and his glory were all household words. All the women in his harem had come to him on their own accord. He was a good king, powerful, invincible.

In his kingdom he wants the traditional rites to be performed and Veda Ghoshas (uttering Veda Mantras) to be intoned, not at the usual prescribed hour, but at an unearthly hour. One of his brothers is a heavy sleeper (Kumbhakarana) and the other (Vibhishana), because of his non-Rakshasa qualities, a misfit in that society.

Ravana has no respect for his brother and does not hesitate, to oust him at the slightest protest raised by him. Ravana is sensual, aggrandizing, unscrupulous and gargantuan. He is the very personification of Rajasic qualities and takes immense pride in the exercise of those qualities. In that Rakshasa society there is an admixture of the Tamasic Guna also.

An inordinate pride raised its head and Ravana became extremely arrogant. That was his undoing.


The Supreme Virtue of the Ramayana
From The Valmiki Ramayana, Chapter 111
(The concluding text)

This then is the whole of the great epic and its sequel called the Ramayana, which was composed by Valmiki and is revered by Brahma Himself. …. Gods, Gandharvas, Siddhas, and great Rishis in heaven, ever listen with delight to the poem Ramayana. This epic, which promotes long life, grants good fortune and destroys sin, is equal to the Veda and should be recited by the wise to men of faith.

On hearing it, he who has no son will obtain a son, he who has no fortune will become wealthy; to read but a foot of this poem will absolve him from all sin. He who commits sins daily will be wholly purified by reciting a single shloka.

The reciter of this narrative should be rewarded with raiment, cows and gold, for, if he is satisfied, all the gods are satisfied. He who recites this epic ‘Ramayana’ that prolongs life, will be blessed with his sons and grandsons in this world and after his death, in the other world. He who, with devotion, recites the Ramayana at the hour when the cows are loosed or at noon, or at dusk, will never suffer adversity.

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The Ramayana’s relevance to modern times

The Art of Administration as
depicted in Valmiki Ramayana

By Sri P.G.Ananthanarayan (Mani)

The professed objective of all governments, down the corridors of history of man, has been to provide and ensure the welfare and happiness of the people through an efficient and good administration. However, despite the advance of civilisation and progress in science and technology and efforts through international forums like the United Nations to achieve peace and happiness, the world is riddled with strife, misery and tension.

Any person in charge of administration has to follow certain well tested codes to bless the generation with peace, prosperity and efficiency. In this context, the ancient and many faceted Ramayana is very relevant today as the epic has very many lessons to offer in the art of administration. A deep study of the epic would not only reflect the high level of civilisation that existed during the Ramayana era but would also furnish meaningful guidelines on Public Administration through the medium of several characters.

At the outset, the epic opens with the administrative setup prevalent in Ayodhya (the capital city). Further, there are the following three situations where detailed and wholesome advice is rendered on the art of efficient administration.
Theses are:

1. King Dasharath’s advice to Sri Rama
on the eve of coronation.

2. Sri Rama’s questions and advice to
Bharata at their historic meeting at Chitrakut.

3. Surpankha’s advice to Ravana.

An exhaustive cross-section from the epic, revealing valuable instructions on the art of administration that have a refreshing relevance today, is furnished below.

The administrative setup in Ayodhya is designed to provide the maximum happiness for the maximum number of people for the maximum period, based as it is on the principles of Dharma –righteousness and moral values.

The king, who was Dharmic (righteous) and solely concerned with the welfare of his subject was assisted by a cabinet of eight ministers of pure and unblemished characters. The cabinet was the Executive Council and the administration of the kingdom was carried out in consultation with it. The king was advised and supervised by a council of eight Sages, whose sole wealth was non-attachment (vairagya) and wisdom (Gyaan). Thus they functioned, without fear or favour, solely motivated by the welfare of the people, and provided the very foundation of the administrative system. The opinion of these sages possessing self-restraint, headed by sage Vasishtha, was the law. Thus, the cabinet ruled the people. The king supervised the cabinet. The Sages controlled the king in turn. In all matters, the moral code of the Lord of the universe (Dharma ) reigned supreme.

1.  King Dasharatha’s Advice to Sri Rama

On the eve of Sri Rama’s coronation, king Dasharatha summoned his darling son and tendered wholesome and mature advice on Administration based on his experience.

King Dasharatha said: "My son, although you are a storehouse of merits, I wish to offer some friendly advice to you out of sheer affection. Resorting to even greater humility (than before), constantly keep your senses under control. Avoid vices born of lust and anger."

[Note: Vices (vyasanani) according to Manu Smriti arising from lust include hunting, playing at dice, sleeping by day, slandering others, fondness for women, vanity and vices resulting from anger are tale-bearing, violence, vindictiveness, jealousy, fault-finding, squandering one’s wealth, abusive speech, and cruelty in punishment.]

Rule according to both the direct and
indirect methods of governance

Indirect method:

Ascertaining the conditions and loyalty of one’s own people and the relative strength and intentions etc., of the neighbouring states through a network of spies.

Direct Method:

To make a tour of one’s dominions and ascertain things personally, to invite direct petitions from one’s subjects, hear their grievances and decide their cases on their own merits.

"Please your ministers and others (namely, the Army Commanders and Civic Guards) as well as people responsible for maintenance (against future contingencies) of numerous stores (of useful materials such as jewelry, gold and silver, textiles and ornaments) along with barns and armouries."

"The friends and allies of a King, who protects the earth with fostering care and whose subjects are not only loved by him as his children but are devoted to him in their turn, exult in the same way as the immortals did on securing nectar. Therefore, disciplining your mind, my son, conduct yourself well as instructed by me."

The importance attached to personal discipline and far-sightedness in matters of efficient administration will be evident from the foregoing.

2. Sri Rama’s advice to Bharata

The Noble Bharata when he came to know that his mother was responsible for Sri Rama’s exile was tortured by the agonies of grief, anger and guilt. Wearing Jata (hair bound in knot) and bark garments he proceeds from Ayodhya, along with its entire population, to pursuade Sri Rama to return. After their momentous and affectionate meeting at Chitrakut, Sri Rama addressed Bharata on the art of administration, which is exhaustively detailed in the Ayodhya Kanda of the epic known as the famous '‘Kacchit Sarga’.

As Bharata was to rule the kingdom as per the King’s promise to queen Kaikeyi, Sri Rama enquires of Bharata whether he was ruling the Kingdom efficiently. He was also asked to explain by Sri Rama why he had left his post of duty and come to the forest.

In this context, Sri Rama enquires of Bharata and instructs him extensively on the finer points of the art of administration. This address highlights the duties and responsibilities of Kingship covering all aspects and the entire range of administration in which a King should attain proficiency if he was really concerned with the happiness and welfare of his subjects.

It is interesting to note that earlier Sri Rama had clearly told Lakshamana when he suspected Bharata’s intentions, that Bharata was coming in agony and solely with the purpose of offering the Kingdom to Sri Rama. Hence, questions addressed to Bharata were obviously not intended for him but, over his shoulders, they were guidelines meant for the benefit of those who wished to get educated on the principles and art of efficient administration!

Since each stanza begins with the word ‘Kacchit’, it is known as the Kacchit Sarga of the Ramayana. A summary of the questions and instructions are furnished below with a few stanzas by way of illustration.

Starting with human relations at home and Bharata’s personal conduct and self-discipline, the questions cover his reverence and service to his parents, teachers and elders to ensure domestic harmony. It embraces all Departments of Government activity like Home Affairs, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Labour Relations, Agriculture etc.

"Are you rendering service to our father, oh my dear Bharata? Is the celebrated preceptor of Ikshvakus (Sage Vasishtha) being duly honoured by you?"

"Do you hold in high esteem gods and manes, dependents, elders, kinsmen of your father’s age, the aged, the physicians as well as the Brahmanas? Do you respect Sudhanva, your teacher of the science of Archery who is equipped with knowledge relating to the use of excellent arrows both direct and remote-controlled and well versed in political economy?"

"I hope the ministers you have appointed are valiant like you- full of learning, who have controlled their senses, who are born of high pedigrees (cultured family) and know the meaning of signs (discreet and shrewd)."

"The sound advice given by experienced ministers well versed in the laws of truth and virtues is the very foundation on which the prosperity of a King rests."

"The learned in times of difficulty bring endless glory by solving knotty problems."

"I hope you prefer learned men to thousands of fools. No help will come to a king if he seeks advice from thousands of evil advisers or even ten thousands of them."

"Even if there is a single minister if only he is wise, brave, clever and discreet, he will bring fame and prosperity to a King big or small."

"He who does not get rid of a physician adept in devices of aggravating a disease, a servant intent on bringing disgrace to his master and a gallant warrior seeking kingly power, is himself destroyed by these persons."

"I hope the person appointed as your Commander-in-chief is ever pleased, full of resolution, is gallant and talented, is of spotless character and well-born and devoted and clever."

"Are the foremost of your skilled warriors being recognised by bestowing suitable honours by you?" (gallantry awards).

"I hope you distribute (daily) provisions and distribute the monthly salary due to them at the proper time in a suitable manner and do not delay their payment (to prevent discontentment). For, salaried servants surely and positively get enraged even at their master when the distribution of their provisions and the disbursal of their salaries are delayed and that itself is a very great harm done to the State." (Labour Relations).

"Has a man of your own State, who is learned, clever, ready witted and capable of delivering messages correctly, who is able to distinguish between right and wrong, been appointed by you as an Ambassador, O Bharata?" (Foreign Affairs and Diplomatic assignment).

"Do you keep an eye on the eighteen functionaries of the enemies and fifteen functionaries of your side through three unknown, independent spies?"

[Note: The eighteen functionaries are : 1.The chief minister 2.The King’s family priest 3.The crown prince 4.The generalissimo 5.The chief warder 6.The chamberlain 7.The superintendent of jails 8.The chancellor of the exchequer 9.The herald 10.The government advocate 11.The judge 12.The assessor 13.The officer disbursing salaries to army men 14.The officer drawing money from the state exchequer to disburse the workmen’s wages 15.The city Kotwal (mayor of the city) 16. The protector of the borders of a kingdom, who also performed the duties of a forester 17.The magistrate 18.The officer entrusted with the conservation of waters, hills, forests and tracts difficult of access.

The fifteen functionaries of one’s own side are the last fifteen of this very list, omitting the first three, viz., the chief minister, the family priest and the crown prince.]

‘I hope you do not patronize Atheists Brahmins, for being ignorant and conceited they are skilled in perverting the minds of people."

Next Sri Rama instructs Bharata on the defence and protection of Ayodhya and enquires about the various aspects and measures designed for its prosperity (like water storage, well cultivated fields not depending on the vagaries of the monsoon (or rainy season), cattle wealth, peopled by highly delightful men and women, free from violence and fear etc.).

"Are the Vaisyas (who live by trade, agriculture and breeding and rearing cattle) loved by you? Are they thriving well in agriculture and animal husbandry?"

‘Are the women folks well protected?"

"Are the forests which are the homes of elephants preserved by you?" (Wild life preservation and ecology).

"Are the milch-cows in abundance with you?" (dairying).

"Are all your fortifications fully supplied with wealth and provisions, arms and water, mechanical contrivances and equipped with artisans and bowmen?" (Defence installations in a state of readiness or full alert).

Regarding Financial management.

" Is your income sufficiently large to meet your expenses and your expenditure comparatively less? (Balanced budget without deficit financing). I hope your wealth does not go to undeserving men."

"I hope the laws are administered justly and impartially. I hope the innocent do not suffer and the guilty are not let off without punishment due to greed (corruption)."

"I hope disputes between the rich and the poor are dealt with and judged impartially by the ministers. For, the tears from the eyes of those falsely convicted, destroy the sons and cattle of the king who rules the people for the sake of pleasures and not caring for equity and justice."

"Do you see to win over the elders, children and foremost physicians by gifts, a loving mind and polite words?" (Human Relations).

"Do you greet your teachers, and elders, ascetics, deities and unexpected visitors as well as the trees standing on cross roads (ecology) and the wise and learned Brahmins who have achieved the object of their life through character and austerities?"

"Do you avoid the fourteen failings of kings?"

[Note: These are the fourteen failings (vices ) of a king: Atheism, Untruth, Anger, Carelessness, Procrastination, Neglect of the learned, Laziness, Slavery to the senses, Obsession with wealth, Counsel with those who do not know the proper way (perverted insight), Non-commencement of the decided issues, Absence of caution in keeping secrets, Non-use of the auspicious, Showing respect to all and sundry without any discrimination (e.g. getting up from the seat to receive anybody and everybody)].

" I hope you deal properly, after fully taking into account and knowing the ten evils born of lust, the five kinds of fortifications, the four expedients (recommended for kings), the seven important limbs of a state, the eight evils born of anger or the eight measures (conducive to the welfare of a state), the three worldly objects of human pursuits (Dharma, Artha, Kama) namely religious merit, material wealth and sensuous enjoyment or the three kinds of powers (namely energy or ‘Utsaah-Shakti’, the power of dominion or ‘Prabhu-Shakti’, and the power of counsel or ‘Mantra-Shakti’. The three branches of learning (viz., the three Vedas or ‘Trayi’, the knowledge relating to agriculture, commerce and other vocational pursuits, and political science, subjugation of the senses, the six strategic expedients (viz., coming to terms with the enemy, waging war against him, marching against him, biding one’s time to seek a favourable opportunity, causing dissension in the enemy’s ranks, and seeking the protection of a powerful ally; Adversities brought about by diverse agencies (such as fire, excessive rains or floods, epidemic diseases, famine and pestilence) and human agencies (such as officials, thieves, enemies, a king’s favourite and the king himself when motivated by greed).

The stern duties of a king (as dictated by policy, such as to win over enemy’s men whose emoluments have been withheld, who are greedy, who have suffered indignity at his hands, who are irate or have been provoked by him for no reason, who are afraid or have been intimidated) twenty types of monarchs who are not worth negotiating with (viz., who is a minor, aged, suffering from chronic sickness, greedy, without character etc.) the entire population of the state; setting forth on an expedition for conquest against the enemy; drawing up an army in battle array."

"O wise one! Do you hold consultation in accordance with scriptural injunctions with only four or three (selected) counselors collectively or severally to guard against a split among them and to prevent the secrets from leaking out?"

"Has your study of the Vedas borne fruit
and are your undertakings successful?"

"Has your learning borne fruit?"

Sri Rama concludes the illuminating address thus:

"Having obtained as his share and ruled in the right way over the entire globe, a wise king holds sway over the earth and administering justice to the people quite in consonance with righteousness, surely ascends to heaven when detached from his body."

3.  Surpankha’s advice to Ravana

It will be surprising to note that of all the people, Surpankha (Ravana’s sister) talks on administration! After her mutilation (cutting off her nose and ears) by Lakshmana for her foolish misadventure, she rushes to Ravana’s court and criticizes him on his lapses in Public Administration and tenders him advice on good government.

‘A greedy king, who is addicted to sensual pleasures and who acts at his sweet will and pleasure is avoided by his subjects like the cremation fire."

"A king who fails to attend to his duties personally at proper moment, hastens his downfall and ruins himself and his realm."

"If a king is ruthless, stingy, indifferent, proud and arrogant, his subjects will not come to his rescue in his times of crisis."

"A king who thinks too much of himself, who is evasive, self-conceited and ever irritable has to be mortally afraid even of his own kith and kin."

"Kings are said to be far-sighted because they can easily visualize the distant calamities with the aid of spies."

"That king alone who is discreet, erudite, self-controlled, grateful and who obeys the divine law, can rule his kingdom well."

"That king is verily worshipped by his subjects, who though physically asleep is mentally awake, and does not indiscriminately punish or reward them."

‘A slanderer, one steeped in worldly pleasure, one who is not in tune with time and one who cannot discriminate the good from the bad, loses his empire and perishes soon."

It will be evident from the foregoing that the rich heritage enshrined in the Ramayana shines through every facet of the epic, like the sophisticated instructions on Public Administration, that have eternal relevance to humanity. That is why the epic ‘Ramayana’ is described as the ocean full of gems and the prime role of the human Avatara (incarnation) is to educate humans on all aspects of the art of living.

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Sri Rama, an Embodiment of Dharma
(part 1)

Extracts from the writings of Sri N.S. Anantharangachar
interspersed by contributions from other sources [printed in brackets].

Dharma is defined in a general way as:

"That on which the existence and prosperity of this
universe as well as fair dealing depend is Dharma."

That which is for the good of this universe is Dharma. This signifies that Dharma is virtue that is to be practised by each individual. These virtues are identified and listed for giving proper guidance to humanity.

[Note:"Existence and prosperity of this universe" is the key sentence here. The Dharma of the individual is the "existence and prosperity" of the individual self. Higher than that is the Dharma or duty to the family. Higher than that is the Dharma to the community. Higher than that is the Dharma to all the city dwellers. Higher than that is the Dharma to the entire nation. Higher than that is the Dharma to the entire human race. Higher than that is the Dharma to all creatures, to the whole universe. The higher category supersedes the lower category.]

Rama says: "When the oppressed seeks relief, at the hands of a virtuous and capable person, it is supreme Dharma to protect the surrendered even at the cost of one’s own life." Rama revealed this supreme Dharma by saying that even if the surrendered person is Ravana himself, he would save even those that deserve to be killed.

When mother Kaushalya and also the citizens of Ayodhya plead with Rama not go to the forest, Rama replies that Dharma lies in obeying the words of the father and that he, being devoted to Dharma, cannot transgress the words of his father.

(Rama is not yet a king.) At this stage Rama’s Dharma is that of a son. After returning from the forest, upon being crowned as King, Rama’s Dharma as a king takes precedence over his own self or over his family. The interest of the kingdom or the nation is above that of the individual or the family of the individual (now crowned as king.) In the interest of the kingdom, Rama would sacrifice his own life; would sacrifice his family life (banish his wife Sita).

Rama says: "I can renounce my life, Lakshmana, and you, Sita, but I cannot break my promise.
(A quotation from Tulasi Ramayana: From Ayodhya Kanda, Chopai 27:)

Raghukula Riti Sadaa Chali Aai,
Praan Jaahun Baru Bachanu Na Jaai

Valmiki shows, by using extreme examples, how Dharma assumes different roles according to the changed circumstances. Contrast the Dharma of Rama as a son (not yet a king) with Rama as a King. Rama as a son did not have the relationship between king and subjects as when citizens of Ayodhya plead with Rama not to go to the forest.]

In one of the passages describing the words of Sita, the significance of Dharma is expounded. Sita asks Rama to practise Dharma of the Tapovana (of the Rishis and the ascetics) so long as he dwells in the forest and to take to the bow and arrow after returning to the capital. Sita wanted Rama to follow the path of the hermits and not to engage himself in vanquishing the demons that troubled the sages.

Rama, who was steadfast in Dharma says that it is the Dharma of a Kshatriya to redeem the world from suffering and sorrow. Dharma is not a mood of helpless passivity but dynamic activity against the offenders of Dharma.

The following is from the Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 9-30,31.

"Wealth comes out of Dharma. Happiness comes out of Dharma. Everything is obtainable from Dharma. Dharma is the essence of this universe. The adept attain Dharma by disciplining themselves by the conditions of Dharma, with great effort; one cannot get happiness from happiness.".

Dharma is eightfold as: "Sacrifice, Vedic study, Charity, Penance, Truth, Fortitude, Forgiveness, Non-desire."

The following ten are characteristics of Dharma (Dharma Lakshanam).

Fortitude, forgiveness, restraint, non-stealing, purity, control over sense organs, intelligence, knowledge, truth, absence of anger.

‘Dharma’ is a term which could be understood but which cannot properly be translated into any other language. This word comes from the root ‘DRI’ which means supporting. That which is the support of this universe is Dharma. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14.says:

"Yet he did not flourish. He created that Dharma which has an excellent form. This Dharma is the controller of Kshatriya. Therefore, there is nothing higher than that. Even a weak man hopes to defeat a strong man by Dharma as one does through the king. Dharma is verily Satya or truth. A speaker of truth is said to speak Dharma or a person speaking Dharma is said to speak truth. Both these are but righteousness."

The glory of creation was not complete without Dharma. Dharma may mean action approved by the scriptures. It may also mean the unseen result of such action. Dharma has different shades of meaning and signifies different things acording to the context. It may mean a Sadhana or a means and then it signifies righteousness. It may also mean in another sense the very Principle which is the support or ground of everything else in this universe. In this supreme sense ‘Dharma’ means the Supreme Being who is the support of every other thing.

Sri Rama is described as the very embodiment of Dharma in both these senses.

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Sri Rama, an Embodiment of Dharma
(part 2)
By Sri B.S. Satyanarayana, Bangalore University

Adi Kavi (the first poet laureate) Valmiki wrote Ramayana not only to sing the melodious glory and story of Sri Rama, the Prince of Ayodhya, but to present to the posterity a practical philosophy of life, a vision of Truth, by telling how to lead a pious life, within the prevailing conditions of one’s existential conditions.

It has a pragmatic message for a busy man how to go about his daily life so that he would not only acquire his needs here, but also get what he deserves hereafter. The Bard of ancient lore sang into Ramayana songs of sacrifice, heroism, service, love, suffering, pathos and songs of sane advice, and made it a long epic and a perennial source of inspiration and enculturing influence upon the readers. Honourable Srinivas Sastri gave a word of caution to the reader of Ramayana when he said: "Deal Rama not as a man in whom there was all knowledge, all propriety, all virtues from the very beginning and unfailing till the end. That is not the way to read his life but as a man who struggled, was tempted, who has his weakness."

Valmiki did not want to treat the problem of Dharma in abstraction but wanted to give a demonstration of Dharma in action. Hence he wrote this beautiful song Ramayana. One meets therein personalities from among men, monkeys, birds and other primates who demonstrate from their views, feelings, behaviour and actions the heights of stature a person may rise to. It is in this sense that Sri Rama is an embodiment of Dharma in action. Therefore, Valmiki is very fond of using the expression that Rama is a living Icon of Dharma (Ramo Vigrahavan Dharmah).

The Concept of Dharma

The essence of an individual is manifested through his action. The character e