TOP =======UNDERSTANDING HINDUISM========
From The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 16,
Gita, Ch. 16, Verse 1: The Blessed Lord said
Gita, Ch. 16, Verse 2 :
Gita, Ch. 16, Verse 3 :
Commentary by Swami Shivananda, Rishikesh:
The Sattwic man controls the senses, does selfless service, and practises japa, pranayama, concentration, meditation, self-analysis, and enquiry of "Who am I?" He has no attraction for sensual objects. He has a burning desire to attain moksha (salvation). He is humble, generous, merciful, forbearing, tolerant and pious. He destroys his little personality.
The rajasic man is proud, intolerant, egoistic, self-sufficient, lustful, hot-tempered, greedy and jealous. he works for his own glory and fame and self-aggrandisement. He develops his own little personality.
There is an intimate connection between the gunas and karmas (actions performed by men).The nature of the karmas depends upon the nature of the gunas. A Sattwic man will do virtuous actions. A Rajasic and Tamasic man will perform non-virtuous actions. It is the guna that goads a man to do actions. The Self or Brahman is actionless. He is the silent witness.
Daivi sampat enables the aspirant to attain
the highest state of superconsciousness (Nirvikalpa Samadhi), wherein the seer and the
seen are united in one; the meditator and the meditated become identical.
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Chapter 16, Verse 1:
the Divine qualities, Fearlessness stands foremost. Fear is an effect of ignorance.
Identification with the body causes fear. Blind attachment to the body, wife,
children, house, property etc. is the cause of fear.The sage who has realised the Self is
Fear can be removed by constant thinking of the immortal and all-blissful nature of the Self. If you lead a life of honesty and truthfulness, if you devoutly observe the precepts of the scriptures without doubting, if you lead a life of right conduct, and if you remember God always, you will become fearless.
2.Purity of heart (Satvasamsuddhih): Purity of understanding, cleanliness of life or purity of heart. Purity of mind, i.e., giving up of cheating, hypocrisy, untruth and the like, in all dealings with the people, and doing transactions with perfect honesty and integrity is purity of heart. A purity of mind cannot be obtained without devotion to the Lord.
3.Steadfastness in Knowledge
and Yoga (Jnanayogavyavasthitih): Understanding the nature of the
(Fearlessness, Purity of heart, and Steadfastness in Knowledge and Yoga are the three pre-eminent virtues amongst the Sattwic attributes enumerated in verse 1 to 3. These three attributes are found in Jnana (Knowledge) Yogis only. The other qualities are common to Jnana Yogis, Karma Yogis, Raja Yogis, and Bhaktas or those following the path of Devotion. If you cultivate one virtue, all other virtues will cling to you by themselves. Fearlessness is the basis and foundation of the whole of man's moral structure within.)
4.Almsgiving (Dana); Distributing
food, clothes etc., as far
5.Control of the senses:(Dama). Self
-restraint, self-control, control of the external senses. [Control of the inner
senses or the mind is described in verse no. 2 ]. The practice of self-control
annihilates the union between the senses and the sensual objects. He keeps the
senses under the strictest restraint. He is moderate in his diet. He checks the outgoing
tendencies of the mind and the senses. He induces the mind and the senses to turn
backwards towards their source. As householders cannot practise perfect control of the
senses, even moderation or regulated and disciplined life will constitute self-restraint
for them. The practice of self-control
6. Sacrifice (Yajna): The
fire worship (agnihotra or havan)
7. Study of scriptures (Svadhyaya): Study
of the Vedas
8. Austerity (Tapas): True
Tapas is meditation on the Self.
Verse 14: Worship of the gods, the
twice-born, the teachers
Verse 15: Speech which causes no excitement, truthful, pleasant and beneficial, the practice of the study of the Vedas, are called austerity of speech.
Verse 16: One should speak what is true; one
9. Straightforwardness (Arjavam): This
is conducive to the attainment of knowledge. The aspirant should always be
Chapter 16, Verse 2:
10. Harmlessness (Ahimsa): Non-injury in thought, word and deed. By refraining from injuring living creatures, the outgoing forces of Rajas are curbed. Ahimsa is divided into physical, verbal and mental.
11.Truth (Satyam): Speaking
of things as they are without
12. Absence of anger (Akrodha):
Absence of anger when insulted, rebuked or beaten, i.e., even under the gravest
13. Renunciation (Tyagah):
Literally giving up; giving up of vasanas, egoism and the fruits of
action. Charity is also tyaga.
14. Peacefulness (Santi): Serenity of the mind or tranquillity
15. Absence of crookedness
(Apaisunam): Aversion to
16. Compassion towards beings (Daya): Compassion to those who are in distress. A man of compassion has a tender heart. He lives only for the benefit of the world. Compassion indicates realisation of unity or oneness with other creatures.
17. Freedom from covetousness (Aloluptvam): Non-covetousness. The senses are not affected or excited when they come in contact with their respective objects; the senses are withdrawn from the objects of the senses, just as the limbs of the tortoise are withdrawn by it into its own shell.
18. Gentleness (Mardavam).
19. Modesty (Hrih): It is
shame felt in the performance of
20. Absence of fickleness
(Achapalam): Not to speak in
Chapter 16, Verse 3:
21. Vigour (Tejas): Vigour,
energy, brilliance. The aspirant
22. Forgiveness (Kshama): He
who is endowed with this
23. Fortitude (Dhrti): The
sage absorbs within himself all calamities. He is steadfast even when he is in very trying
24. Purity (Saucham): This
is of two kinds , viz., external and internal. External purity are
done by means of earth and water.
25. Absence of hatred (Adroha): Freedom from malice.Includes absence of desire to injure others.
26. Absence of overweening pride (Atimanita): Atimanita is great pride. A proud man thinks that he is superior to others and that he is worthy of being honoured by others.
The Divine Wealth or Daivi Sampat consists of
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